High p-Type Doping, Mobility, and Photocarrier Lifetime in Arsenic-Doped CdTe Single Crystals

Darius Kuciauskas, Akira Nagaoka, Jedidiah McCoy, Michael Scarpulla

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus Citations


Group-V element doping is promising for simultaneously maximizing the hole concentration and minority carrier lifetime in CdTe for thin film solar cells, but there are roadblocks concerning point defects including the possibility of self-compensation by AX metastability. Herein, we report on doping, lifetime, and mobility of CdTe single crystals doped with As between 1016 and 1020 cm-3 grown from the Cd solvent by the travelling heater method. Evidence consistent with AX instability as a major contributor to compensation in samples doped below 1017 cm-3 is presented, while for higher-doped samples, precipitation of a second phase on planar structural defects is also observed and may explain spatial variation in properties such as lifetime. Rapid cooling after crystal growth increases doping efficiency and mobility for times up to 20-30 days at room temperature with the highest efficiencies observed close to 45% and a hole mobility of 70 cm2/Vs at room temperature. A doping limit in the low 1017/cm3 range is observed for samples quenched at 200-300 °C/h. Bulk minority carrier lifetimes exceeding 20 ns are observed for samples doped near 1016 cm-3 relaxed in the dark and for unintentionally doped samples, while a lifetime of nearly 5 ns is observed for 1018 cm-3As doping. These results help us to establish limits on properties expected for group-V doped CdTe polycrystalline thin films for use in photovoltaics.

Original languageAmerican English
Article numberArticle No. 192101
Number of pages4
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Issue number19
StatePublished - 7 May 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 Author(s).

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5900-71157


  • crystal defects
  • doping
  • semiconductors
  • solar energy


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