High-Penetration Photovoltaic Planning Methodologies

Eduard Muljadi, Mackay Miller, David Gao, Tian Tian

Research output: NRELTechnical Report


The main objective of this report is to provide an overview of select U.S. utility methodologies for performing high-penetration photovoltaic (HPPV) system planning and impact studies. This report covers the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's orders related to photovoltaic (PV) power system interconnection, particularly the interconnection processes for the Large Generation Interconnection Procedures and Small Generation Interconnection Procedures. In addition, it includes U.S. state interconnection standards and procedures. The procedures used by these regulatory bodies consider the impacts of HPPV power plants on the networks. Technical interconnection requirements for HPPV voltage regulation include aspects of power monitoring, grounding, synchronization, connection to the overall distribution system, back-feeds, disconnecting means, abnormal operating conditions, and power quality. This report provides a summary of mitigation strategies to minimize the impact of HPPV. Recommendations and revisions to the standards may take place as the penetration level of renewables on the grid increases and new technologies develop in future years.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages50
StatePublished - 2017

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/TP-5D00-64227


  • distributed generation
  • high-penetration photovoltaic
  • HPPV
  • voltage regulation


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