Highly Efficient and Uniform 1 cm2 Perovskite Solar Cells with an Electrochemically Deposited NiOx Hole-Extraction Layer

Donghoe Kim, Kai Zhu, Ik Park, Gyeongho Kang, Min Park, Ju Kim, Se Seo, Taiho Park, Jin Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

87 Scopus Citations


Given that the highest certified conversion efficiency of the organic–inorganic perovskite solar cell (PSC) already exceeds 22 %, which is even higher than that of the polycrystalline silicon solar cell, the significance of new scalable processes that can be utilized for preparing large-area devices and their commercialization is rapidly increasing. From this perspective, the electrodeposition method is one of the most suitable processes for preparing large-area devices because it is an already commercialized process with proven controllability and scalability. Here, a highly uniform NiOx layer prepared by electrochemical deposition is reported as an efficient hole-extraction layer of a p–i–n-type planar PSC with a large active area of >1 cm2. It is demonstrated that the increased surface roughness of the NiOx layer, achieved by controlling the deposition current density, facilitates the hole extraction at the interface between perovskite and NiOx, and thus increases the fill factor and the conversion efficiency. The electrochemically deposited NiOx layer also exhibits extremely uniform thickness and morphology, leading to highly efficient and uniform large-area PSCs. As a result, the p–i–n-type planar PSC with an area of 1.084 cm2 exhibits a stable conversion efficiency of 17.0 % (19.2 % for 0.1 cm2) without showing hysteresis effects.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)2660-2667
Number of pages8
Issue number12
StatePublished - 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5900-68709


  • charge extraction
  • electrochemical deposition
  • methylammonium lead halides
  • nickel oxides
  • solar cells


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