Highly Efficient Perovskite Solar Modules by Scalable Fabrication and Interconnection Optimization

Kai Zhu, Mengjin Yang, Talysa Klein, Matthew Reese, Bertrand Tremolet de Villers, Joseph Berry, Marinus Van Hest, Donghoe Kim, Zhen Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

149 Scopus Citations


To push perovskite solar cell (PSC) technology toward practical applications, large-area perovskite solar modules with multiple subcells need to be developed by fully scalable deposition approaches. Here, we demonstrate a deposition scheme for perovskite module fabrication with spray coating of a TiO2 electron transport layer (ETL) and blade coating of both a perovskite absorber layer and a spiro-OMeTAD-based hole transport layer (HTL). The TiO2 ETL remaining in the interconnection between subcells significantly affects the module performance. Reducing the TiO2 thickness changes the interconnection contact from a Schottky diode to ohmic behavior. Owing to interconnection resistance reduction, the perovskite modules with a 10 nm TiO2 layer show enhanced performance mainly associated with an improved fill factor. Finally, we demonstrate a four-cell MA0.7FA0.3PbI3 perovskite module with a stabilized power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.6% measured from an aperture area of ~10.36 cm2, corresponding to an active-area module PCE of 17.9% with a geometric fill factor of ~87.3%.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)322-328
Number of pages7
JournalACS Energy Letters
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 American Chemical Society.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5900-70289


  • deposition
  • fabrication
  • module fabrication
  • perovskite solar cells


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