Hybrid Energy System to H2 to Green Steel/Ammonia

Research output: NRELPresentation


Green hydrogen is a vital pathway to decarbonize industrial sectors responsible for the largest portion of greenhouse gas emissions, including ammonia/fertilizer and steel. It takes approximately a GW-scale renewables hybrid-H2 system to fully convert one average U.S. steel plant to a green steel plant, with an annual production capacity of 100 million metric tons per year. The optimized cost-effective operation of renewables-H2 plants are highly dependent on location and the specific end use designs. This project focused on the analysis of GW-scale off-grid, tightly-coupled, co-located systems to reduce overall cost compared with steam methane reform with and without carbon capture and grid connected systems (see Figure 1).
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages55
StatePublished - 2023

Publication series

NamePresented at the 2023 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), 5-8 June 2023, Arlington, Virginia

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/PR-5000-86493


  • ammonia
  • hybrid systems
  • hydrogen
  • renewables
  • steel
  • wind


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