Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems: The Value of Storage as a Function of PV-Wind Variability: Article No. 1036183

Anna Schleifer, Dylan Harrison-Atlas, Wesley Cole, Caitlin Murphy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus Citations


As shares of variable renewable energy (VRE) on the electric grid increase, sources of grid flexibility will become increasingly important for maintaining the reliability and affordability of electricity supply. Lithium-ion battery energy storage has been identified as an important and cost-effective source of flexibility, both by itself and when coupled with VRE technologies like solar photovoltaics (PV) and wind. In this study, we explored the current and future value of utility-scale hybrid energy systems comprising PV, wind, and lithium-ion battery technologies (PV-wind-battery systems). Using a price-taker model with simulated hourly energy and capacity prices, we simulated the revenue-maximizing dispatch of a range of PV-wind-battery configurations across Texas, from the present through 2050. Holding PV capacity and point-of-interconnection capacity constant, we modeled configurations with varying wind-to-PV capacity ratios and battery-to-PV capacity ratios. We found that coupling PV, wind, and battery technologies allows for more effective utilization of interconnection capacity by increasing capacity factors to 60%-80%+ and capacity credits to close to 100%, depending on battery capacity. We also compared the energy and capacity values of PV-wind and PV-wind-battery systems to the corresponding stability coefficient metric, which describes the location-and configuration-specific complementarity of PV and wind resources. Our results show that the stability coefficient effectively predicts the configuration-location combinations in which a smaller battery component can provide comparable economic performance in a PV-wind-battery system (compared to a PV-battery system). These PV-wind-battery hybrids can help integrate more VRE by providing smoother, more predictable generation and greater flexibility.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages20
JournalFrontiers in Energy Research
StatePublished - 2023

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-6A20-81902


  • battery energy storage
  • bulk power system
  • hybrid renewable energy system
  • price-taker optimization
  • solar photovoltaics
  • utility-scale electricity generation
  • wind energy


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