Hybrid Systems to Enable High Penetration PV: Preprint

Nicholas DiOrio, Steven Janzou, Kim Nguyen, William Hobbs, Olugbenga Ajala

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


A model for PV plus energy storage and fuel cells was developed in the System Advisor Model (SAM). This model was used to evaluate the ramp rate and interconnection capacity factor for a hypothetical utility-scale plant for several configuration options. For PV only, the plant experienced 3345 violations of a 10%/minute ramp up limitation and a interconnection capacity factor of 17.6%. Adding a battery reduced the violations to 154 per year and the magnitude of the average violation to 2%. Adding a fuel cell to the PV system increased the capacity factor to 78% without improving ramp violations. Using a combined PV plus storage plus fuel cell arrangement maintained the improved capacity factor while reducing ramp up violations to 23, illustrating the potential to operate a hybrid system both to enable grid integration requirements and increase utilization of the interconnection.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages8
StatePublished - 2019
Event46th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC 46) - Chicago, Illinois
Duration: 16 Jun 201921 Jun 2019


Conference46th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC 46)
CityChicago, Illinois

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-6A20-74041


  • fuel cell
  • hybrid
  • PV
  • SAM


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