Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) and Power-to-Gas Economic Analysis: NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

Joshua Eichman

Research output: NRELPresentation


This presentation summarizes opportunities for hydrogen energy storage and power-to-gas and presents the results of a market analysis performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to quantify the value of energy storage. Hydrogen energy storage and power-to-gas systems have the ability to integrate multiple energy sectors including electricity, transportation, and industrial. On account of the flexibility of hydrogen systems, there are a variety of potential system configurations. Each configuration will provide different value to the owner, customers and grid system operator. This presentation provides an economic comparison of hydrogen storage, power-to-gas and conventional storage systems. The total cost is compared to the revenue with participation in a variety of markets to assess the economic competitiveness. It is found that the sale of hydrogen for transportation or industrial use greatly increases competitiveness. Electrolyzers operating as demand response devices (i.e., selling hydrogen and grid services) are economically competitive, while hydrogen storage that inputs electricity and outputs only electricity have an unfavorable business case. Additionally, tighter integration with the grid provides greater revenue (e.g., energy, ancillary service and capacity markets are explored). Lastly, additional hours of storage capacity is not necessarily more competitive in current energy and ancillary service markets and electricity markets will require new mechanisms to appropriately compensate long duration storage devices.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages15
StatePublished - 2015

Publication series

NamePresented at the California Hydrogen Business Council (CHBC) Summer Summit, 29-30 July 2015, Downey, California

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/PR-5400-64833


  • ancillary services
  • demand response
  • electricity markets
  • electrolyzers
  • energy storage
  • fuel cells
  • hydrogen energy storage
  • operations optimization
  • power-to-gas
  • price-taker
  • renewable energy storage
  • storage valuation


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