Identifying the Cause of Rupture of Li-Ion Batteries during Thermal Runaway

Matthew Keyser, Donal Finegan, Eric Darcy, Bernhard Tjaden, Thomas Heenan, Rhodri Jervis, Josh Bailey, Nghia Vo, Oxana Magdysyuk, Michael Drakopoulos, Marco Michiel, Alexander Rack, Gareth Hinds, Dan Brett, Paul Shearing

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

148 Scopus Citations


As the energy density of lithium-ion cells and batteries increases, controlling the outcomes of thermal runaway becomes more challenging. If the high rate of gas generation during thermal runaway is not adequately vented, commercial cell designs can rupture and explode, presenting serious safety concerns. Here, ultra-high-speed synchrotron X-ray imaging is used at >20 000 frames per second to characterize the venting processes of six different 18650 cell designs undergoing thermal runaway. For the first time, the mechanisms that lead to the most catastrophic type of cell failure, rupture, and explosion are identified and elucidated in detail. The practical application of the technique is highlighted by evaluating a novel 18650 cell design with a second vent at the base, which is shown to avoid the critical stages that lead to rupture. The insights yielded in this study shed new light on battery failure and are expected to guide the development of safer commercial cell designs.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number1700369
Number of pages13
JournalAdvanced Science
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5400-71248


  • high-speed imaging
  • Li-ion batteries
  • thermal runaway
  • venting
  • X-ray CT


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