III-V/Si Wafer Bonding Using Transparent, Conductive Oxide Interlayers

Adele C. Tamboli, Maikel F.A.M. Van Hest, Myles A. Steiner, Stephanie Essig, Emmett E. Perl, Andrew G. Norman, Nick Bosco, Paul Stradins

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20 Scopus Citations


We present a method for low temperature plasma-activated direct wafer bonding of III-V materials to Si using a transparent, conductive indium zinc oxide interlayer. The transparent, conductive oxide (TCO) layer provides excellent optical transmission as well as electrical conduction, suggesting suitability for Si/III-V hybrid devices including Si-based tandem solar cells. For bonding temperatures ranging from 100 °C to 350 °C, Ohmic behavior is observed in the sample stacks, with specific contact resistivity below 1 Ω cm2 for samples bonded at 200 °C. Optical absorption measurements show minimal parasitic light absorption, which is limited by the III-V interlayers necessary for Ohmic contact formation to TCOs. These results are promising for Ga0.5In0.5P/Si tandem solar cells operating at 1 sun or low concentration conditions.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number263904
Number of pages4
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Issue number26
StatePublished - 29 Jun 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5J00-64052


  • electrical properties
  • III-V semiconductors
  • interface structure
  • sapphire
  • solar cells


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