Image-Based Digital Twin for Assessing the Coupled Electro-Chemo-Mechanical Behavior of Li-Ion Batteries

Kristen Susuki, Jeff Allen, Jiun-Shyan Chen

Research output: NRELPoster


In energy storage materials, strong electrochemical-mechanical coupling and highly anisotropic material properties contribute to the formation and propagation of micro-cracking during charge/discharge cycling, resulting in reduced performance and service life. In this work, a digital twin is created to investigate the performance of a Li-ion battery cathode and simulate degradation accumulation. Pixel-based model construction is used to represent the complex material geometries from microstructural images supplied by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Because of the expected large deformation and crack opening, the reproducing kernel particle method (RKPM), a meshfree method with discretization at the image pixels, is used to approximate the field variables: electrostatic potential, concentration, and displacement. An interface modified reproducing kernel (IM-RK) is constructed by scaling a smooth kernel function with an interface-distance function to achieve strategic discontinuity types (i.e. weak discontinuities for strain discontinuities and strong discontinuities for cracks) and alleviate Gibbs oscillations near these transition zones. The discrete nature of the images' pixel points is employed throughout the model and approximation construction. The mechanical model is verified using an image-based microstructure under tensile loading. A transient electro-chemo-mechanical coupled simulation is performed to evaluate the potential micro-cracking induced degradation of the battery cathode material subjected to charge/discharge cycling.
Original languageAmerican English
PublisherNational Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)
StatePublished - 2024

Publication series

NamePresented at the 42nd Annual Research Expo, 17 April 2024, San Diego, California

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/PO-2C00-89093


  • battery degradation
  • meshfree methods
  • multiphysics
  • reproducing kernel particle method


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