Imaging, Microscopic Analysis, and Modeling of a CdTe Module Degraded by Heat and Light

Steven Johnston, David Albin, Peter Hacke, Steven Harvey, Helio Moutinho, Chun Sheng Jiang, Chuanxiao Xiao, Mowafak Al-Jassim, Wyatt Metzger, Anuja Parikh, Marco Nardone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus Citations


Photoluminescence (PL), electroluminescence (EL), and dark lock-in thermography are collected during stressing of a CdTe module under one-Sun light at an elevated temperature of 100 °C. The PL imaging system is simple and economical. The PL images show differing degrees of degradation across the module and are less sensitive to effects of shunting and resistance that appear on the EL images. Regions of varying degradation are chosen based on avoiding pre-existing shunt defects. These regions are evaluated using time-of-flight secondary ion-mass spectrometry and Kelvin probe force microscopy. Reduced PL intensity correlates to increased Cu concentration at the front interface. Numerical modeling and measurements agree that the increased Cu concentration at the junction also correlates to a reduced space charge region.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)46-51
Number of pages6
JournalSolar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
StatePublished - 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5K00-70699


  • Accelerated aging
  • Cadmium telluride
  • Imaging, microscopy
  • Modeling
  • Photoluminescence


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