Impact of Adaptation on Flex-Fuel Vehicle Emissions When Fueled with E40

Janet Yanowitz, Keith Knoll, James Kemper, Jon Luecke, Robert L. McCormick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus Citations


Nine flex-fuel vehicles meeting Tier 1, light duty vehicle-low emission vehicle (LDV-LEV), light duty truck 2-LEV (LDT2-LEV), and Tier 2 emission standards were tested over hot-start and cold-start three-phase LA92 cycles for nonmethane organic gases, ethanol, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, acetone, nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO2), as well as fuel economy. Emissions were measured immediately after refueling with E40. The vehicles had previously been adapted to either E10 or E76. An overall comparison of emissions and fuel economy behavior of vehicles running on E40 showed results generally consistent with adaptation to the blend after the length of the three-phase hot-start LA92 test procedure (1735 s, 11 miles). However, the single LDT2-LEV vehicle, a Dodge Caravan, continued to exhibit statistically significant differences in emissions for most pollutants when tested on E40 depending on whether the vehicle had been previously adapted to E10 or E76. The results were consistent with an overestimate of the amount of ethanol in the fuel when E40 was added immediately after the use of E76. Increasing ethanol concentration in fuel led to reductions in fuel economy, NOx, CO, CO2, and acetone emissions as well as increases in emissions of ethanol, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)2990-2997
Number of pages8
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Issue number6
StatePublished - 19 Mar 2013

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5400-56894


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