Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging on the Power Demand of Retail Buildings

Madeline Gilleran, Eric Bonnema, Jason Woods, Partha Mishra, Ian Doebber, Chad Hunter, Matt Mitchell, Margaret Mann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

67 Scopus Citations

Abstract

As electric vehicle penetration increases, charging is expected to have a significant impact on the grid. Electric vehicle charging stations will greatly affect a building site's power demand, especially with the onset of fast charging with power levels as high as 350 kW per charger. Here, we assess how electric vehicle charging stations would impact a retail big box grocery store, exploring numerous station sizes, charging power levels, and utilization factors in various climate zones and seasons. We measure the effect of charging by assessing changes in monthly peak power demand, electricity usage, and annual electricity bill, computed using three distinct rate structures. We find that an electric vehicle station has the potential to dwarf a big box building's power demand if behind the same meter, increasing monthly peak power demand at the site by over 250%. Cold-climate areas paired with rate structures incorporating high demand charges are most susceptible for significant changes to the annual electricity bill, with increases as high as 88%.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number100062
Number of pages10
JournalAdvances in Applied Energy
Volume4
DOIs
StatePublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5400-79080

Keywords

  • Big box grocery store
  • Building energy
  • Electric vehicle
  • Extreme fast charging
  • Power demand
  • Seasonal variation

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