Impact of Increased Inverter Penetration on Power System Small-Signal Stability: Preprint

Yashen Lin, Gab-Su Seo, Sanjana Vijayshankar, Brian Johnson, Sairaj Dhople

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


The transformation of the power system to include more distributed energy resources (DER) implies an increase in the number of inverter-based resources deployed on the grid. Envisioning future scenarios, this paper presents a small-signal stability analysis for a power grid comprising synchronous generators and inverter-based resources. Three types of inverter control are considered: grid following, droop-controlled grid forming, and virtual oscillator control grid forming. Although small-signal stability of power systems is a widely studied topic, systematic analysis of mixed machine-inverter systems with detailed control models at various inverter penetration levels are limited. This paper addresses the gap with numerical simulations tailored to the IEEE 39-bus system. Results show the system may become unstable at high inverter penetration level of grid-following inverters, and grid-forming inverter control can potentially improve system stability, thereby enabling very high level of DERs.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages8
StatePublished - 2021
Event2021 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting -
Duration: 25 Jul 202129 Jul 2021


Conference2021 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting

Bibliographical note

See NREL/CP-5D00-82280 for paper as published in proceedings

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5D00-78448


  • grid-following inverter
  • grid-forming inverter
  • inverter-based resources
  • modal analysis
  • power system stability
  • small-signal stability


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