Impact of Uncertainty from Load-Based Reserves and Renewables on Dispatch Costs and Emissions

Yashen Lin, Bowen Li, Spencer Maroukis, Johanna Mathieu

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review

4 Scopus Citations


Aggregations of controllable loads are considered to be a fast-responding, cost-efficient, and environmental-friendly candidate for power system ancillary services. Unlike conventional service providers, the potential capacity from the aggregation is highly affected by factors like ambient conditions and load usage patterns. Previous work modeled aggregations of controllable loads (such as air conditioners) as thermal batteries, which are capable of providing reserves but with uncertain capacity. A stochastic optimal power flow problem was formulated to manage this uncertainty, as well as uncertainty in renewable generation. In this paper, we explore how the types and levels of uncertainty, generation reserve costs, and controllable load capacity affect the dispatch solution, operational costs, and CO2 emissions. We also compare the results of two methods for solving the stochastic optimization problem, namely the probabilistically robust method and analytical reformulation assuming Gaussian distributions. Case studies are conducted on a modified IEEE 9-bus system with renewables, controllable loads, and congestion. We find that different types and levels of uncertainty have significant impacts on dispatch and emissions. More controllable loads and less conservative solution methodologies lead to lower costs and emissions.

Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages6
StatePublished - 17 Nov 2016
Event48th North American Power Symposium, NAPS 2016 - Denver, United States
Duration: 18 Sep 201620 Sep 2016


Conference48th North American Power Symposium, NAPS 2016
Country/TerritoryUnited States

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 IEEE.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5D00-67828


  • generators
  • robustness
  • schedules
  • stochastic processes
  • temperature
  • uncertainty
  • wind forecasting


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