Impedance-Based Characterization of Power System Frequency Response: Preprint

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


This paper presents an impedance-based noninvasive approach for the characterization of power system frequency response in real time in the absence of a transient event. It measures transfer function response from the injected active power to the frequency at the point of interconnection for the estimation of inertia and primary frequency response of the system. The so-called frequency response function also shows the effects of the speed of primary frequency control. The paper also derives the relationship between the frequency response function and the network impedance seen from the point of interconnection. This relationship highlights how impedance captures the frequency response behavior of a network. The proposed methodology is demonstrated on a modified IEEE 9-bus system with 25% penetration of wind and PV generation; a 5-MW battery energy storage system is used for the injection of active power perturbations for the measurement of the frequency response function.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages8
StatePublished - 2019
Event2019 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting (IEEE PES GM) - Atlanta, Georgia
Duration: 4 Aug 20198 Aug 2019


Conference2019 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting (IEEE PES GM)
CityAtlanta, Georgia

Bibliographical note

See NREL/CP-5D00-76217 for paper as published in IEEE proceedings

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5D00-72478


  • frequency adequacy
  • frequency response
  • impedance-based analysis
  • inertia
  • primary frequency control


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