Implementations and Evaluations of Wind Turbine Inertial Controls With FAST and Digital Real-Time Simulations

Xiao Wang, David Wenzhong Gao, Jianhui Wang, Weihang Yan, Wei Gao, Eduard Muljadi, Vahan Gevorgian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus Citations


This paper presents a novel simulation approach to evaluate new ancillary service controls in the context of large-scale wind power integration. We adopt and compare different types of turbine inertial control methods with the proposed modifications to cope with realistic wind conditions in the field. The simulation procedure is started with the software-based simulation, in which we employ the high-fidelity wind turbine simulator FAST that models a real three-bladed controls advanced research turbine (CART3). The advantages of using FAST are that it can provide convincing simulation results and address the interactions between turbine electrical and mechanical systems. The developed controller model is then rapidly prototyped for the real-time simulation with the hardware-in-the-loop scheme. CART3 will respond to a virtual frequency event triggered in the emulated electric grid modeled in a digital real-time simulator. The introduced simulation platform streamlines the procedure of designing turbine auxiliary controls, and these simulations results give insights on the turbine controls and their impacts on the interconnected power system, as well as the effects on turbine mechanical components. For example, the results indicate that the inertial controls tend to reduce the out-of-plane mechanical loadings in region 2, while such loadings are dominated by the pitch actions in region 3.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number8391765
Pages (from-to)1805-1814
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 1986-2012 IEEE.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5D00-73184


  • ancillary service
  • DRTS
  • HIL
  • Inertial response
  • wind power integrations


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