Improved Performance of Electroplated CZTS Thin-Film Solar Cells with Bifacial Configuration

Jie Ge, Yue Yu, Weijun Ke, Jian Li, Xinxuan Tan, Junhao Chu, Yanfa Yan, Heli Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

42 Scopus Citations


Annealing in S vapor greatly improves the performance of electroplated Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) solar cells based on the bifacial configuration of Al-doped ZnO (AZO, front contact)/ZnO/CdS/CZTS/indium tin oxide (ITO, back contact), as compared to H2S annealing in our previous works. S-vapor annealing does not cause severe damage to the conductivity of the ITO back contact. The highest device efficiency of 5.8% was reached under 1 sun illumination from the AZO side. The well-preformed devices based on the ITO back contact demonstrate smaller series resistances and better fill factors, as compared to our substrate-type devices using Mo back contacts. An interfacial reaction at the ITO back contact has been revealed in experiments, which contributes to the formation of SnO2-enriched interfacial layer and diffusion of In from ITO into CZTS through the Sn sites. Incorporation of In does not significantly change the optical and structural properties or the grain size of CZTS absorbers.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)2149-2158
Number of pages10
Issue number16
StatePublished - 2016

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5K00-66830


  • bifacial device
  • diffusion
  • indium tin oxide
  • kesterite
  • vapor annealing


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