Improving Biodiesel Monoglyceride Determination by ASTM Method D6584-17

Teresa Alleman, Earl Christensen, Bryan Moser

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus Citations


Biodiesels produced from commercial and non-traditional feedstocks were analyzed by ASTM D6584-17 for monoglyceride (monoacylglycerol, or MG) content. It was found that D6584-17 as currently written may not accurately determine MGs from conventional feedstocks due to significant differences in retention time using modern instrumentation. For biodiesel from non-traditional feedstocks, D6584-17 did not sufficiently account for MGs containing fatty acids outside of C16 and C18 species. This led to under- and over-reporting of MGs, as critical components were not accurately measured. Improvements to the method were made through a three-step process. First, a standard mixture of MGs was run to determine the retention time of individual MGs that could be present in the samples from C10 to C24. An additional analysis for the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profile was used to determine the major MG species present in the biodiesel samples, using the assumption that the MG profile was proportional to the FAME profile. The biodiesel samples were analyzed by D6584-17, and the MGs were identified using retention time matching, based on the major species expected from measuring the FAME profile. By combining these two methods, the accuracy of MG determination by D6584-17 was improved for biodiesels prepared from all feedstocks.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)65-70
Number of pages6
StatePublished - 2019

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5400-72205


  • alternative feedstock
  • ASTM D6584-17
  • biodiesel
  • fuel quality
  • gas chromatography
  • monoglycerides


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