Improving the Barrier Properties of Tin Oxide in Metal Halide Perovskite Solar Cells Using Ozone to Enhance Nucleation

Samuel Johnson, Keith White, Jinhui Tong, Shuai You, Artiom Magomedov, Bryon Larson, Daniel Morales, Rosemary Bramante, Erin Dunphy, Robert Tirawat, Craig Perkins, Jeremie Werner, Gabriella Lahti, Christian Velez, Michael Toney, Kai Zhu, Michael McGehee, Joseph Berry, Axel Palmstrom

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus Citations


We investigate tin oxide growth on fullerene (C60) by atomic layer deposition (ALD) for C60/oxide bilayer electron selective contacts in P-I-N metal halide perovskite (MHP) solar cells. An in situ ozone functionalization step is incorporated in an ALD SnOx process to suppress sub-surface growth, leading to improved internal barrier performance of ALD SnOx thin films grown on fullerene surfaces. We show that this approach decreases the water-vapor transmission rate of C60/ALD SnOx barriers by an order of magnitude and improves the barrier properties against gas, solvent, and halide migration. Furthermore, ozone-treated SnOx barriers can narrow photovoltaic performance distribution without compromising efficiency. We demonstrate the universality of this approach in wide-, intermediate-, and low-gap perovskite systems and further show that enhancement of the ALD barrier layer is critical toward improving the yield of all-perovskite tandem solar cells. Two-terminal all-perovskite tandem solar cells incorporating ozone nucleation are reported at over 24% photovoltaic conversion efficiency.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)2873-2893
Number of pages21
Issue number12
StatePublished - 2023

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5K00-84908


  • atomic layer deposition
  • internal barrier
  • metal halide perovskite solar cells
  • nucleation
  • ozone functionalization
  • tandem solar cell
  • tin oxide


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