In-route inductive versus stationary conductive charging for shared automated electric vehicles: A university shuttle service

Ahmed Mohamed, Eric Wood, Andrew Meintz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus Citations


In-route inductive charging technology, as applied to automated electric vehicles, can help realize a fully automated system of both vehicles and chargers. This study presents a planning optimization analysis for fixed-route automated shuttles supported by in-route inductive charging technology. A techno-economic feasibility of inductive charging was assessed in comparison with stationary charging, including Level 2 AC chargers, and DC fast chargers (DCFCs). This analysis considered both present-day and future vehicle operations and overall system costs. A real project with two circulator Navya Arma shared automated electric vehicles (SAEVs) at the University of Michigan was investigated using real-world collected energy and travel data. The outcomes show that the proper design of quasi-dynamic inductive chargers at designated stops allows SAEVs to realize unlimited driving range and be cost-competitive to DCFC technology. Considering present-day costs and vehicles, low-speed SAEVs can realize charge-sustaining operation at a minimum cost either by implementing a 50-kW inductive charger at two stops with one segment per position and a 29-kWh onboard battery, or by installing a 100-kW inductive charger at one stop with one segment per position and a 28-kWh onboard battery. Considering future costs and vehicles, either a 40-kW charger at one stop with a 29-kWh battery or a 50-kW charger at the north stop with a 14-kWh battery would enable charge-sustaining operation. In addition, quasi-dynamic inductive solution can reduce the onboard battery by about 15% while providing unlimited driving range, but stationary scenarios require about 112% additional battery capacity to support a 12-h driving range.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number116132
Number of pages12
JournalApplied Energy
Issue numberPart A
StatePublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier Ltd

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5400-75726


  • Automated electric shuttles
  • In-route inductive charging
  • Inductive power transfer (IPT)
  • Optimization
  • System planning


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