In Situ Synthesis of Molybdenum Carbide Nanoparticles Incorporated into Laser-Patterned Nitrogen-Doped Carbon for Room Temperature VOC Sensing

Huize Wang, Simon Delacroix, Anna Zieleniewska, Jing Hou, Nadezda Tarakina, Daniel Cruz, Iver Lauermann, Andrew Ferguson, Jeffrey Blackburn, Volker Strauss

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus Citations

Abstract

Carbon laser-patterning (CLaP) is emerging as a new tool for the precise and selective synthesis of functional carbon-based materials for on-chip applications. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the applicability of laser-patterned nitrogen-doped carbon (LP-NC) for resistive gas-sensing applications. Films of pre-carbonized organic nanoparticles on polyethylenetherephthalate are carbonized with a CO2-laser. Upon laser-irradiation a compositional and morphological gradient in the films is generated with a carbon content of 92% near the top surface. The specific surface areas of the LP-NC are increased by introducing sodium iodide (NaI) as a porogen. Electronic conductivity and surface area measurements corroborate the deeper penetration of the laser-energy into the film in the presence of NaI. Furthermore, impregnation of LP-NC with MoC1−x (<10 nm) nanoparticles is achieved by addition of ammonium heptamolybdate into the precursor film. The resulting doping-sensitive nano-grain boundaries between p-type carbon and metallic MoC1−x lead to an improvement of the volatile organic compounds sensing response of ΔR/R0 = −3.7% or −0.8% for 1250 ppm acetone or 900 ppm toluene at room temperature, respectively, which is competitive with carbon-based sensor materials. Further advances in sensitivity and in situ functionalization are expected to make CLaP a useful method for printing selective sensor arrays.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number2104061
Number of pages11
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Volume31
Issue number46
DOIs
StatePublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Authors. Advanced Functional Materials published by Wiley-VCH GmbH

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5900-79570

Keywords

  • carbon laser-patterning
  • molybdenum carbide
  • porogens
  • room temperature sensors
  • volatile organic compounds sensors

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