Incorporation and Activation of Arsenic Dopant in Single-Crystal CdTe Grown on Si by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

Stuart Farrell, Wyatt Metzger, Timothy Gessert, J.H. Park, R. Kodama, C. Blissett, X. Wang, E. Colegrove, S. Sivananthan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus Citations


We report the use of molecular beam epitaxy to achieve p-type doping of CdTe grown on Si(211) substrates, by use of an arsenic cracker and post-growth annealing. A high hole density in CdTe is crucial for high efficiency II-VI-based solar cells. We measured the density of As in single-crystal CdTe by secondary ion mass spectroscopy; this showed that high As incorporation is achieved at low growth temperatures. Progressively higher incorporation was observed during low-temperature growth, presumably because of degradation of crystal quality with incorporation of As at such defect sites as dislocations and defect complexes. After As activation annealing under Hg overpressure, hole concentrations were obtained from Hall measurements. The highest doping level was ∼2.3 × 1016 cm-3, and near-1016 cm-3 doping was readily reproduced. The activation efficiency was ∼50%, but further optimization of the growth and annealing conditions is likely to improve this value.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)2998-3003
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
Issue number8
StatePublished - 2014

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5K00-62585


  • activation
  • As-doping
  • CdTe
  • dislocations
  • Hall measurement
  • incorporation
  • SIMS


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