Increasing the Number of Installed Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the USA Through Improved Technology and Utility Programs

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2 Scopus Citations

Abstract

Purpose of Review: Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) offer an efficient alternative to electric resistance water heaters, but they suffer from limited market penetration. This paper reviews the current state of HPWHs in the USA, focusing on technology developments and programs to increase adoption. What technological improvements are needed to make HPWHs a good fit in more homes? What are the best ways of promoting HPWHs to consumers? Recent Findings: Improved communication and controls will allow HPWHs to provide demand response and follow dynamic utility rates. To enable fuel-switching, HPWHs are being developed that only need a standard 120V outlet. Split HPWHs can alleviate the cooling and noise that limit the use of HPWHs in small homes, multifamily buildings, and cold climates. Additionally, new utility programs aim to train installers and provide incentives to distributors to increase the number of HPWHs installed. Summary: Some utilities offer novel incentive programs that have led to increased customer uptake. Those advances, coupled with improved controls for load shifting and new products such as split HPWHs and HPWHs that can run on 120V power, may finally move the market forward.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)107-113
Number of pages7
JournalCurrent Sustainable/Renewable Energy Reports
Volume8
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Switzerland AG part of Springer Nature.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5500-78374

Keywords

  • Connected water heater
  • Grid-interactive water heater
  • Heat pump water heater
  • Midstream programs
  • Retrofit-ready heat pump water heater
  • Split heat pump water heater

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