India 2030 Wind and Solar Integration Study: Interim Report

Research output: NRELTechnical Report


India has established several targets for renewable energy capacity growth in the coming years, most notably the target of deploying 175 gigawatts (GW) of generation capacity from wind, solar, biomass, and small hydropower by 2022, and furthering that vision with India's Nationally Determined Contribution target of 40% renewable electricity capacity (including hydro) by 2030 (GOI 2015). Given the rapid and significant changes to India's power system to help meet these targets, the objective of this interim report is to understand the operational challenges for India's power grid in 2030. The primary contribution of this report is to establish a 2030 unit commitment and dispatch model of India's grid, with hourly temporal resolution, high spatial resolution of renewable energy resources, interstate transmission constraints, and unit-level generator characteristics. Annual simulations of 2030 operations demonstrate that a 22% annual penetration of wind and solar is manageable by India's grid. Most days in the year do not show signs of stress, and 99.97% of energy is served with the plans as presented. Average coal plant load factors are 70% for the year, up from relatively low plant load factors in recent years (Patel 2018). However, the results highlight specific challenges the grid may face during a small number of high-demand periods, resulting in unserved energy. The drivers behind the unserved energy suggest that this could be avoided with better coordination in scheduling. This report is part of a broader set of analyses under the Energy Transitions Commission (ETC), which includes collaborations with The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), Climate Policy Initiative (CPI), and a broad stakeholder community.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages37
StatePublished - 2019

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/TP-6A20-73854


  • India
  • renewables integration
  • solar
  • wind


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