Integrated Charging Infrastructure Planning and Charging Scheduling for Battery Electric Bus Systems

Yi He, Zhaocai Liu, Ziqi Song

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Scopus Citations


Studies on the electric bus system planning problem have typically focused exclusively on either the deployment of charging infrastructure or the scheduling of charging events; few have examined the impact of charging facility deployment on charging activities. Considering the interdependence of system design and operational strategies, this study proposes a two-phase optimization framework for charging infrastructure planning and charging scheduling for battery electric bus systems. An integrated optimization model is first developed to simultaneously optimize charger deployment, on-board battery capacity, and charging schedules. A charging scheduling model is further proposed and a rolling horizon approach is utilized in the second phase to optimize the real-time charging scheduling of electric buses. Compared to existing electric bus system planning methods, the proposed integrated model can reduce the total system cost by 19.5%. In addition, compared to uncontrolled charging, the proposed rolling horizon-based charging strategy can reduce the total charging cost by 68.3%.

Original languageAmerican English
Article numberArticle No. 103437
Number of pages21
JournalTransportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment
StatePublished - Oct 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier Ltd

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-2C00-83195


  • Battery electric buses
  • Charging infrastructure planning
  • Charging scheduling
  • Integrated optimization
  • Rolling horizon


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