Integrated Heat Pump Thermal Storage and Power Cycle for CSP: Final Technical Report

Joshua McTigue, Pau Farres-Antunez, Alexander White, Christos Markides, Janna Martinek, Jennie Jorgenson, Ty Neises, Mark Mehos

Research output: NRELTechnical Report


Pumped thermal energy storage (PTES) is a storage system that stores electricity in thermal reservoirs. In this project, methods of integrating PTES with concentrating solar power (CSP) systems were investigated and their feasibility evaluated. Hybrid "solar-PTES" devices can provide both flexible renewable power generation as well as a variety of electricity storage services. Techno-economic models of PTES and solar-PTES were developed and used to assess their performance, cost, and commercial viability. Systems were optimized using multi-objective optimization techniques. The value that these storage devices provide to the grid was estimated using production cost modelling. Key advances made in this project include the development of detailed techno-economic models that improve state-of-the-art assessments of these technologies. Off-design models were developed and used in grid-analysis models. This work describes for the first time how PTES and solar-PTES behave over a range of operating points and assesses the value that these systems can provide to the electrical grid. Feedback was obtained from experts in the field, which clarified key technological and economic barriers that must be addressed to improve the feasibility of these devices.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages100
StatePublished - 2022

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/TP-5700-79806


  • carnot batteries
  • concentrating solar power
  • energy storage
  • molten salts
  • pumped thermal energy storage
  • solar heat
  • supercritical carbon dioxide
  • thermal storage


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