Integrated Pumped Thermal and Liquid Air Energy Storage

Pau Farres-Antunez, Joshua McTigue, Robert Morgan, Alexander White

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Liquid air energy storage (LAES) and pumped thermal energy storage (PTES) are two closely related technologies that employ thermodynamic cycles to store electricity in the form of thermal energy. This chapter describes the integration of PTES and LAES in a single combined cycle (PT-LAES), where the PTES side provides the cold source required to drive the air liquefaction process. This presents several advantages compared to the separate cycles, including the partial or complete removal of cold stores, a higher energy density and the achievement of full air liquefaction. Notably, PT-LAES does not depend on external sources of heat or cold and thus constitutes a stand-alone system. As a result, PT-LAES can also be viewed as an advanced LAES cycle with full liquefaction.
Original languageAmerican English
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Energy Storage
Subtitle of host publicationVolume 2 - Thermal Mechanical Energy Storage; Electrochemical Storage
EditorsL. F. Cabeza
StatePublished - 2022

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CH-5700-86081


  • Carnot batteries
  • cryogenic
  • energy management
  • exergy heat exchangers
  • LAES
  • large-scale electricity storage
  • PTES
  • thermal energy storage
  • thermodynamic cycle analysis


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