Integration of Variable Generation, Cost-Causation, and Integration Costs

Michael Milligan, Erik Ela, Bri Mathias Hodge, Brendan Kirby, Debra Lew, Charlton Clark, Jennifer DeCesaro, Kevin Lynn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

53 Scopus Citations


This article examines how wind and solar integration studies have evolved, what analysis techniques work, what common mistakes are still made, and what and why calculating integration costs is such a difficult problem that should be undertaken carefully, if at all. Examples of integration costs for other generation technologies are examined to help illuminate underlying cost causation principles.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)51-63
Number of pages13
JournalElectricity Journal
Issue number9
StatePublished - 2011

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5500-52362


  • integration
  • solar
  • variable generation
  • wind


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