Interactive Power to Frequency Dynamics Between Grid-Forming Inverters and Synchronous Generators in Power Electronics-Dominated Power Systems

Rick Kenyon, Amirhossein Sajadi, Matt Bossart, Anderson Hoke, Bri-Mathias Hodge

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus Citations

Abstract

With increased attention on grid-forming inverters as a power system stabilizing device during high shares of inverter-based resource operations, there is a present need for a transparent and methodical investigation of the inverted and direct power to frequency control capabilities and impacts of these devices on emerging power systems. Here, analysis of the frequency dynamics of the droop-controlled grid-forming inverter and the synchronous generator illuminates the inverted active power-frequency relationship and the frequency response order reduction, forming the basis for novel, nonlinear frequency control approaches. Device-level electromagnetic transient domain simulations corroborate the order-reduction findings, establish that a properly designed dc-side system has a negligible impact on power transfer and will not impede frequency regulation, and confirm the primary frequency response improvement with nonlinear control. Simulations of the 9- and 39-bus test systems validate the order reduction and associated decoupling of the nadir and rate of change of frequency in larger networks. Oscillatory mode analysis confirms the grid-forming benefit of increased damping; decreased damping is observed at shares above 80%, but not at 100%. Finally, simulations on a validated Maui power system model with a 96% of inverter-based resources model yield a trend toward a first-order response.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)3456-3467
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Systems Journal
Volume17
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 2023

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-6A40-86252

Keywords

  • frequency response
  • grid-forming inverters
  • nonlinear control
  • oscillatory modes
  • synchronous generators

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