Interfacial Pressure Improves Calendar Aging of Lithium Metal Anodes: Article No. 1292639

Kimberly Bassett, Kathryn Small, Daniel Long, Laura Merrill, Benjamin Warren, Katherine Harrison

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Lithium (Li) metal is a promising anode because its theoretical specific capacity is approximately ten times larger than graphite. However, Li anodes suffer from long-term capacity fade due to Li stranding (becoming electronically disconnected) and electrolyte decomposition. Applied interfacial pressure has been shown to improve Li anode cycling, likely due to reincorporating stranded or "dead" Li into the anode. Calendar aging can also lead to Li capacity loss due to electrolyte decomposition/Li corrosion and the formation of stranded Li. Some research suggests that calendar aging during cycling results in reversible capacity losses due to Li stranding and reconnection. We here investigate the effect of applied interfacial pressure on Li anode calendar aging during cycling with incorporated rest steps in a localized high-concentration electrolyte (LHCE) to understand if pressure can mitigate stranded Li formation during rest by manipulating the Li morphology. Pouch cells exhibit more stable cycling and denser Li deposits between 10 kPa and 1,000 kPa of applied pressure compared to no applied pressure. Despite drops in CE during periodic rest cycles, the average cumulative lost capacity and average coulombic efficiency (CE) of cells over 50 cycles show that cells aged with incorporated rest steps perform similarly to cells cycled without added rests. This similar average CE suggests that dead Li is largely responsible for drops in CE during rest rather than irreversible Li corrosion and that the dead Li can be reconnected in subsequent cycling. The addition of a lithiophilic ZnO coating to the Cu working electrode increases the adhesion and coverage of Li deposits at low pressures and improves CE during the first cycle.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages15
JournalFrontiers in Batteries and Electrochemistry
StatePublished - 2023

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5K00-87272


  • applied pressure
  • calendar aging
  • dead lithium
  • galvanic corrosion
  • lithium anode
  • lithium metal
  • localized high-concentration electrolytes
  • surface coatings


Dive into the research topics of 'Interfacial Pressure Improves Calendar Aging of Lithium Metal Anodes: Article No. 1292639'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this