Internal Consistency and Diversity Scenario Development: A Comparative Framework to Evaluate Energy Model Scenarios: Article No. 113632

Noah Sandoval, Janet Reyna, Amy Landis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Energy modeling frameworks and scenario analysis help us explore the potential impact of our actions and uncertainties in future energy systems. Despite their importance, there is no systematic procedure for evaluating the scenario development process. In a literature review, we identify two core elements of the scenario development process: internal consistency and diversity which are oftentimes missing from scenarios. To address this gap, we create the Internal consistency and Diversity Scenario Development (IDSD) comparative framework which aims to assess the feasibility and diversity of scenarios for a given energy model. With this framework, we review commonly used energy models and demonstrate our framework on their scenarios. The IDSD comparative framework can serve several purposes absent from previous scenario development work by aiding energy modelers and report writers in crafting high-quality scenarios. First, the IDSD is a reflective tool which can improve the quality of the scenario development process, enabling a comparative assessment of energy models and scenarios. Second, the IDSD can provide guidance to modeling frameworks with existing scenarios and those still in development; this feedback will enable modelers to improve the development and the communication of the limitations of their scenarios. Third, this study has highlighted areas for improvement in the scenario development of some commonly used energy model frameworks. Finally, there is a complete lack of explanation regarding the stakeholder selection process. Addressing these identified items could increase opportunities for advanced energy technology uptake and improve our options for achieving a more resilient energy system.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages12
JournalRenewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
StatePublished - 2023

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5500-81895


  • annual energy outlook
  • energy modeling
  • evaluation framework
  • LA100
  • scenario development
  • Scout model
  • shared socioeconomic pathway
  • world energy outlook


Dive into the research topics of 'Internal Consistency and Diversity Scenario Development: A Comparative Framework to Evaluate Energy Model Scenarios: Article No. 113632'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this