International Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets (Presentation): NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

Research output: NRELPresentation


This presentation provides an overview of international voluntary renewable energy markets, with a focus on the United States and Europe. The voluntary renewable energy market is the market in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. In 2010, the U.S. voluntary market was estimated at 35 terawatt-hours (TWh) compared to 300TWh in the European market, though key differences exist. On a customer basis, Australia has historically had the largest number of customers, pricing for voluntary certificates remains low, at less than $1 megawatt-hour, though prices depend on technology.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages14
StatePublished - 2012

Publication series

NamePresented at the World Renewable Energy Forum, 13-17 May 2012, Denver, Colorado

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/PR-6A20-55032


  • green power
  • international voluntary
  • RECS
  • voluntary markets


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