Introduction of New Offshore Wind Farm Structures: Effects on Fish Ecology

Research output: NRELFact Sheet


This Educational Research Brief summarizes the potential effects on fish ecology of introducing new substrate into the marine environment from offshore wind farm development, including introduction of foundations, anchors, and cables. Consideration is given to international and U.S. offshore wind research related to the effects on habitat, colonization of introduced substrates, and trophic web structure and functioning. Consideration is given to the potential artificial reef effects of turbine foundations, referring to their ability in some cases to mimic characteristics of a natural reef and associated attraction of fish and invertebrates.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages10
StatePublished - 2022

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/FS-5000-81562


  • artificial reef
  • environmental effects
  • fish ecology
  • offshore wind
  • turbine foundations


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