Introduction to Grid Forming Inverters: A Key to Transforming our Power Grid

Research output: NRELPresentation


A grid-forming (GFM) inverter-based resource (IBR) controls maintain an internal voltage phasor that is constant or nearly constant in the sub-transient to transient time frame. This definition means that the GFM IBR will nearly immediately respond to changes in the external system and attempt to maintain IBR control during challenging network conditions to maintain grid stability. In GFM IBR, the voltage phasor is controlled to maintain synchronism with other devices in the grid while regulating the active and reactive power appropriately to support the grid.This contrasts with conventional GFL IBR controls wherein immediately after a disturbance (0-5 cycles), within the normal operating range of voltage, the output current phasor magnitude and angle remain unchanged, and the current phasor begins changing only within the transient time frame (tens of cycles) to strictly control the active and reactive power being injected into the network. This presentation gives an introduction to GFM IBR and presents the current state of the art in this area.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages31
StatePublished - 2024

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/PR-5D00-90256


  • GFM
  • grid-forming inverters
  • IBR
  • inverter-based resources
  • Universal Interoperability for Grid-Forming Inverters Consortium


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