Inverted Metamorphic GaInAs Solar Cell Grown by Dynamic Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy

Kevin Schulte, David Diercks, Harvey Guthrey, Matthew Young, Corinne Packard, John Simon, Aaron Ptak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus Citations


We present an inverted metamorphic rear heterojunction ∼1.0 eV GaInAs solar cell deposited by dynamic hydride vapor phase epitaxy (D-HVPE) with high growth rate. This device uses a Ga1-xInxP compositionally graded buffer (CGB) to bridge the lattice constant gap between the GaAs substrate and the Ga0.71In0.29As emitter layer. High-resolution x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy confirm that the Ga0.71In0.29As emitter is grown lattice-matched to the in-plane lattice constant of the CGB with minimal generation of defects at the GaInAs/GaInP interface. The device contains a threading dislocation density of 2.3 × 106 cm-2, a level that enables high-performance minority carrier devices and is comparable to previously demonstrated GaInP CGBs grown by D-HVPE. The device exhibits an open-circuit voltage of 0.589 V under a one-sun AM1.5G illumination condition and a bandgap-voltage offset of 0.407 V, indicating metamorphic epitaxial performance nearly equal to state-of-the-art devices. We analyze the dark current of the device and determine that reducing recombination in the depletion region, which can be achieved by reducing the threading dislocation density and optimizing the device doping density, will improve the device performance. The CGB and device layers, comprising ∼8 μm of thickness, are grown in under 10 min, highlighting the ability of D-HVPE to produce high-quality metamorphic devices of all types with the potential for dramatically higher throughput compared to present technology.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number092101
Number of pages5
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Issue number9
StatePublished - 30 Aug 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Author(s).

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5900-80369


  • D-HVPE
  • dynamic hydride vapor phase epitaxy
  • GaInAs
  • high-performance PV
  • inverted metamorphic rear heterojunction
  • photovoltaic


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