Inverted Metamorphic Multijunction (IMM) Cell Processing Instructions

    Research output: NRELTechnical Report


    This technical report details the processing schedule used to fabricate Inverted Metamorphic Multijunction (IMM) concentrator solar cells at The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). These devices are used as experimental test structures to support the research at NREL that is focused on increasing the efficiency of photovoltaic power conversion. They are not intended to be devicessuitable for deployment in working concentrator systems primarily because of heat sinking issues. The process schedule was developed to be compatible with small sample sizes and to afford relatively rapid turn-around times, in support of research efforts. The report describes the use of electro deposition of gold for both the back and front contacts. Electro-deposition is used because of itsrapid turn around time and because it is a benign metallization technique that is seldom responsible for damage to the semiconductors. The layer transfer technique is detailed including the use of a commercially available adhesive and the etching away of the parent gallium arsenide substrate. Photolithography is used to define front contact grids as well as the mesa area of the cell. Finally,the selective wet chemical etchant system is introduced and its use to reveal the back contact is described.
    Original languageAmerican English
    Number of pages9
    StatePublished - 2012

    NREL Publication Number

    • NREL/TP-5200-54049


    • gallium arsenide (GaAs)
    • gallium indium phosphide (GaInP)
    • IMM
    • IMM cell processing
    • inverted metamorphic multijunction


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