Inverter Controls for Smooth Transition Operation and Voltage Balancing of Networked Microgrids

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


With increasing penetrations of distributed energy resources (DERs), researchers have extensively studied the formation and networking of microgrids to improve reliability during distribution system outages. However, these operations might require DERs in the microgrids to switch between grid-following (GFL) and grid-forming (GFM) modes of operation. A smooth transition between the operation modes should be ensured to have a stable system operation and to avoid nuisance tripping. Additionally, as we network microgrids, inverter control schemes with voltage-balancing controls are needed for unbalanced distribution networks. This paper presents the design of a GFM and GFL capable inverter control scheme for reliable operation in networked microgrids with mechanisms for 1) smooth transition between the GFL and GFM modes, and 2) negative sequence voltage control for voltage balancing. Using electromagnetic transient (EMT) simulations, the control scheme is first tested on a simple two-source power system using a digital real-time simulator. Next, a real-world distribution feeder with unbalanced loading and multiple DERs is used to demonstrate stable operation during the networking of microgrids with voltage balance support.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages7
StatePublished - 2023
EventEnergy Conversion Congress and Expo (IEEE-ECCE) - Nashville, Tennessee, USA.
Duration: 29 Oct 20232 Nov 2023


ConferenceEnergy Conversion Congress and Expo (IEEE-ECCE)
CityNashville, Tennessee, USA.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5D00-88812


  • distributed energy resources
  • grid-following inverters
  • grid-forming inverters
  • microgrids
  • voltage balancing


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