Investigating Multi-Microgrid Black Start Methods Using Grid-Forming Inverters

Elliott Fix, Abhishek Banerjee, Ulrich Muenz, Gab-Su Seo

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review

3 Scopus Citations

Abstract

This paper examines state-of-the-art microgrid (MG) black-start technologies with grid-forming (GFM) inverter-based resources (IBRs) and proposes black start and interconnection methods for 100% inverter-based MGs. A multiple-MG approach is proposed and compared to the existing methods in a 4-bus, 12-GFM inverter simulation test setup. This investigation involves intelligent synchronization units that enable the autonomous synchronization of multiple MGs based on their terminal measurements. MGs in this setup are held at different loading levels and comprise averaged models of GFM inverters. The results of the black-start techniques are compared, and conclusions are drawn to better prepare MG planners and distribution system operators for next-generation, multi-MG, GFM inverter-based, black-start procedures.

Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages5
DOIs
StatePublished - 2023
Event2023 IEEE Power and Energy Society Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference, ISGT 2023 - Washington, United States
Duration: 16 Jan 202319 Jan 2023

Conference

Conference2023 IEEE Power and Energy Society Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference, ISGT 2023
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityWashington
Period16/01/2319/01/23

Bibliographical note

See NREL/CP-5D00-83956 for preprint

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5D00-86222

Keywords

  • black start
  • bottom-up restoration
  • grid-forming inverter
  • inverter-based resources
  • microgrid
  • synchrobreaker

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