Investigating Power System Primary and Secondary Reserve Interaction under High Wind Power Penetration

Yingchen Zhang, Ibrahim Krad, Vahan Gevorgian, Jin Tan, Rui Yang, Erik Ela

Research output: NRELTechnical Report


Power system frequency needs to be maintained close to its nominal value at all times to successfully balance load and generation and maintain system reliability. Adequate primary frequency response and secondary frequency response are the primary forces to correct an energy imbalance at the second-to-minute level. As wind energy becomes a larger portion of the world's energy portfolio, there is an increased need for wind to provide frequency response. This paper addresses one of the major concerns about using wind for frequency regulation: the unknown factor of the interaction between primary and secondary reserves. The lack of a commercially available tool to model this has limited the energy industry's understanding of when the depletion of primary reserves will impact the performance of secondary response or vice versa. This paper investigates the issue by developing a multi-area frequency response integration tool with combined primary and secondary capabilities. The simulation is conducted in close coordination with economical energy scheduling scenarios to ensure credible simulation results.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages37
StatePublished - 2016

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/TP-5D00-64637


  • automatic generation control
  • Electric Power Research Institute
  • energy scheduling
  • EPRI
  • Flexible Energy Scheduling Tool for Integrating Variable Generation
  • frequency
  • Multi-Area Frequency Response Integration Tool
  • National Renewable Energy Laboratory
  • NREL
  • power system reliability
  • primary reserve
  • response
  • secondary reserve


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