Investigating the Impacts of Wind Generation Participation in Interconnection Frequency Response

Vahan Gevorgian, Yingchen Zhang, Erik Ela

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

205 Scopus Citations


The electrical frequency of an interconnection must be maintained very close to its nominal level at all times. Excessive frequency deviations can lead to load shedding, instability, machine damage, and even blackouts. There is rising concern in the power industry in recent years about the declining amount of inertia and primary frequency response (PFR) in many interconnections. This decline may continue due to increasing penetrations of inverter-coupled generation and the planned retirements of conventional thermal plants. Inverter-coupled variable wind generation is capable of contributing to PFR and inertia; however, wind generation PFR and inertia responses differ from those of conventional generators, and it is not entirely understood how this will affect the system at different wind power penetration levels. The simulation work presented in this paper evaluates the impact of the wind generation provision of these active power control strategies on a large, synchronous interconnection. All simulations were conducted on the U.S. Western Interconnection with different levels of wind power penetration levels. The ability of wind power plants to provide PFR - and a combination of synthetic inertial response and PFR - significantly improved the frequency response performance of the system. The simulation results provide insight to designing and operating wind generation active power controls to facilitate adequate frequency response performance of an interconnection.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number6888510
Pages (from-to)1004-1012
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2010-2012 IEEE.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5D00-62014


  • Active power control
  • inertial control
  • primary frequency control
  • primary frequency response (PFR)
  • wind generation


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