Investigation of Lithium Plating-Stripping Process in Li-Ion Batteries at Low Temperature Using an Electrochemical Model

Kandler Smith, Dongsheng Ren, Dongxu Guo, Xuebing Han, Xuning Feng, Languang Lu, Minaggao Ouyang, Jianqiu Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

164 Scopus Citations


Lithium plating leads to severe capacity fading and possible safety problems in lithium-ion batteries. Thus, non-destructive detection methods for lithium plating are critical for safe and reliable operation of lithium-ion batteries. In this paper, an electrochemical model incorporated with lithium plating and stripping reactions is established to investigate the lithium plating-stripping process at low temperature. The model is validated at different current rates and temperatures and can successfully predict the characteristic voltage plateau during the rest period after low temperature charging. Modeling analysis helps to develop detectionmethod for lithium plating via differential analysis on the voltage plateau. Distinct local minima can be found in the differential voltage curves of the batteries with plated lithium. The time when the local minima occurs in the differential voltage curves exhibits a linear relationship with the amount of reversible lithium, and thus can be applied as a quantitative indicator for detection of lithium plating. The detection of lithium plating based on differential voltage analysis is further extended to the discharge voltage profiles of the batteries after low temperature charging, considering the effects of rest time.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)A2167-A2178
JournalJournal of the Electrochemical Society
Issue number10
StatePublished - 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 The Electrochemical Society.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5400-71409


  • differential voltage analysis
  • electrochemical model
  • lithium plating


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