Investigation of Local Parameters of PERC Solar Cells Metallized with Screen Printed Cu-Paste

Suchismita Mitra, Steve Johnston, Ruvini Dharmadasa, Thad Druffel, Kevin Elmer, Apolo Nambo, Dustin Williams, Sandra Huneycutt, Abasafreke Ebong, Pauls Stradins

Research output: NRELPoster


For 40 TW of PV required to transition our planet to 100% renewables, the silver (Ag) should disappear from PV production. Advantages of copper (Cu) over silver (Ag) include: 1) bulk Cu has a similar conductivity to Ag (1.7 one millionth O-cm for Cu, 1.6 one millionth O-cm for Ag, and 2) Cu is -100 times cheaper than Ag, making it an excellent potential replacement. Problems associated with copper contacts include: 1) easy oxidation, and 2) diffusion into the Si cell and recombination activity. To summarize: 1) Rs map shows some regions with very high Rs, indicating no contact in those areas; 2) the histogram shows the peak Rs -5 ohm.cm2, which explains the high FF loss due to Rs; and 3) DLIT indicates non-uniformity in J01 and J02.
Original languageAmerican English
PublisherNational Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)
StatePublished - 2023

Publication series

NamePresented at the 30th Annual NREL Silicon Workshop, 30 July - 2 August 2023, Breckenridge, Colorado

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/PO-5900-87260


  • copper
  • diffusion
  • metallization
  • PERC solar cell
  • photovoltaic
  • PV
  • recombination
  • screen-printing


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