Is the Distribution Grid Ready to Accept Large-Scale Photovoltaic Deployment? State of the Art, Progress, and Future Prospects

Martin Braun, Thomas Stetz, Roland Bründlinger, Christoph Mayr, Kazuhiko Ogimoto, Hiroyuki Hatta, Hiromu Kobayashi, Ben Kroposki, Barry Mather, Michael Coddington, Kevin Lynn, Giorgio Graditi, Achim Woyte, Iain MacGill

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

137 Scopus Citations

Abstract

The installed capacity of photovoltaic (PV) systems has recently increased at a much faster rate than the development of grid codes to effectively and efficiently manage high penetrations of PV within the distribution system. In a number of countries, PV penetrations in some regions are now raising growing concerns regarding integration. Management strategies vary considerably by country-some still have an approach that PV systems should behave as passive as possible, whereas others demand an active participation in grid control. This variety of grid codes also causes challenges in learning from "best practice." This paper provides a review of current grid codes in some countries with high PV penetrations. In addition, the paper presents a number of country-specific case studies on different approaches for improved integration of PV systems in the distribution grid. In particular, we consider integration approaches using active and reactive power control that can reduce or defer expensive grid reinforcement while supporting higher PV penetrations.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)681-697
Number of pages17
JournalProgress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications
Volume20
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 2012

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-6A00-57003

Keywords

  • ancillary services
  • case studies
  • distribution grid
  • grid codes
  • grid integration
  • photovoltaic

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