Key Structural and Defect Chemical Aspects of Cd-In-Sn-O Transparent Conducting Oxides

T. O. Mason, D. R. Kammler, B. J. Ingram, G. B. Gonzalez, D. L. Young, T. J. Coutts

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The equilibrium phase diagram (1175 °C in air), solubility ranges and room temperature physical properties (electrical, optical) were established for the various n-type transparent conductors in the CdO-In2O 3-SnO2 system. Extended solubility ranges were found to exist at constant Cd/Sn ratio for the bixbyite, spinel and orthorhombic perovskite phases. This is attributed to the isovalent and nearly size-matched nature of the co-substitution. Still larger solubility ranges were found for metastably-processed thin films. Co-doped bixyite and spinel phases were found to be inherently off-stoichiometric with respect to cation composition, leading to self-doped n-type character, in bulk and films. A correlation was found between optimized conductivity in the various phases and the density of octahedral Cd, In and/or Sn species in their crystal structures.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)186-192
Number of pages7
JournalThin Solid Films
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2003
EventProceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Transparent Oxide - Tokyo, Japan
Duration: 10 Apr 200311 Apr 2003

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-520-35930


  • Bixbyite
  • Cd-In-Sn-O system
  • Perovskite
  • Spinel
  • Transparent conducting oxide (TCO)


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