Lamination of Transparent Conductive Adhesives for Tandem Solar Cell Applications: Article No. 184002

Talysa Klein, Michelle Young, Adele Tamboli, Emily Warren

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus Citations


A transparent conductive adhesive (TCA) interlayer for mechanically stacked multijunction solar cells provides adhesive strength and electrical connection between sub-cells when stacked. The fabrication of TCA sheets from an ethyl-vinyl acetate (EVA) matrix and silver coated compliant conductive microspheres, similar to industry-standard EVA encapsulant sheets, compatible with a standard lamination process was developed. Blade coating TCA sheets using 3D printed blades and testing of vertical conduction through the interlayer with a TCA conductivity jig allowed for reproducible measurements and low-cost fabrication. The supplemental information provides design files to enable other researchers to produce their own blades and testing jigs. We identified 0.5 mm as an optimal blade height for producing lab-scale TCA sheets and 120 °C at 3 psi for 10 min as the optimal vacuum lamination process to minimize resistance and possible damage to samples. For TCA sheets with coverages between 0.75% and 9%, the series resistance was approximately 0.2 O cm2 which should result in minimal losses for one-sun photovoltaic applications.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Physics D: Applied Physics
Issue number18
StatePublished - 2021

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5900-78556


  • lamination
  • tandem solar cell
  • TCA
  • transparent conductive adhesive


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