Large-Area Junction Damage in Potential-Induced Degradation of c-Si Solar Modules

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


We report a large area of millimeter-scale p-n junction damage caused by potential-induced degradation (PID) of lab-stressed crystalline-Si modules. Kelvin probe force microscopy results show electrical potential change across the junction, and a recovery was observed after heat treatment. Electron-beam induced current results support the large-area damage instead of local shunts and a much lower collected current for the affected junction area. Furthermore, secondaryion mass spectrometry indicates that the large-area damage correlates with sodium contamination. The consistent results shed new light on PID mechanisms to investigate that are essentially different than the widely reported local junction shunts.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages5
StatePublished - 2018
Event2017 IEEE 44th Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC) - Washington, D.C.
Duration: 25 Jun 201730 Jun 2017


Conference2017 IEEE 44th Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC)
CityWashington, D.C.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5K00-67779


  • junction damage
  • large area
  • microscopy
  • potential-induced degradation
  • recovery


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