Laser Lift-Off Scribing of the CZTSe Thin-Film Solar Cells at Different Pulse Durations

Ingrid Repins, Edgaras Markauskas, Paulius Gecys, Gediminas Raciukaitis, Carolyn Beall

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus Citations

Abstract

The transition to fully sized solar modules requires additional three-step laser structuring processes to preserve small-scale cell efficiencies over the large areas. The adjacent cell isolation (the P3 scribe) was found to be the most sensitive process in the case of laser induced damage. The laser induced layer lift-off mechanism seems to be a very attractive process for the P3 patterning, since almost all the laser affected material is removed by mechanical spallation. However, a laser induced layer spallation behavior together with scribe electrical validation under the different laser pulse durations was not investigated extensively in the past. Therefore, we report our novel results on the P2 and P3 laser lift-off processing of the Cu2ZnSn(S, Se4) (CZTSe) thin-film solar cells covering the pulse duration range from 300 fs to 60 ps. Shorter sub-ps pulses enabled us to process smaller P2 and P3 craters, although the lift-off threshold fluences were higher compared to the longer ps pulses. In the case of the layer lift-off, the laser radiation had to penetrate through the layer stack down to the CZTSe/Mo interface. At shorter sub-ps pulses, the nonlinear effects triggered absorption of the laser radiation in the bulk of the material, resulting in increased damage of the CZTSe layer. The Raman measurements confirmed the CZTSe surface stoichiometry changes for shorter pulses. Furthermore, shorter pulses induced higher electrical conductivity of a scribe, resulting in lower photo-electrical efficiency during the mini-module simulation. In the case of the P3 lift-off scribing, the 10 ps pulses were more favorable than shorter femtosecond pulses.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)246-254
Number of pages9
JournalSolar Energy
Volume150
DOIs
StatePublished - 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 Elsevier Ltd

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5J00-68599

Keywords

  • CZTSe
  • Kesterite
  • Laser ablation
  • Lift-off

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