Learning from Existing Photovoltaic Technologies to Identify Alternative Perovskite Module Designs

Jérémie Werner, Caleb Boyd, Taylor Moot, Eli Wolf, Ryan France, Samuel Johnson, Maikel van Hest, Joseph Luther, Kai Zhu, Joseph Berry, Michael McGehee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

43 Scopus Citations


Perovskite solar cells have now become the most efficient of all multicrystalline thin film photovoltaic technologies, reaching 25.2% in 2019. This outstanding figure of merit has only been achieved on small lab-scale devices, with significantly lower performance when processed on larger more industrially relevant substrate sizes. Perovskite modules, connecting several smaller area cells together, are commonly demonstrated with a superstrate monolithic interconnection method. However, several other module designs exist and remain largely unexplored by the perovskite community. In this work, we review and highlight those alternatives and discuss their advantages and limitations. We propose that a singulated substrate-oriented module design, using metallic substrates, could provide a quicker path to seeing highly efficient, lightweight, and flexible perovskite modules on the market, while mitigating near-term technical risks. As an experimental starting-point towards this design, we demonstrate a substrate-oriented all-perovskite 2-terminal tandem with 18% efficiency.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)3393-3403
Number of pages11
JournalEnergy and Environmental Science
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Royal Society of Chemistry.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5900-77656


  • perovskite
  • phtovoltaic
  • solar cells


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